This is the thirteenth installment of the Fortnightly Topic Challenge described here, with topics suggested and voted for here. This fortnight's topic is, in the theme of the Rio Olympics, sports (suggested by Gordon K), and will span from August 5th – August 18th. During this period, we will compile the list of questions featuring this topic and post it as an answer to this question.
In the meantime, please go propose and vote on future challenges!
Everyone have fun, and happy puzzling!
Link to other Fortnightly Topics.