This is the fourteenth installment of the Fortnightly Topic Challenge described here, with topics suggested and voted for here. This fortnight's topic is history (suggested by manshu), and will span from August 22nd – September 4th. During this period, we will compile the list of questions featuring this topic and post it as an answer to this question.
In the meantime, please go propose and vote on future challenges!
Everyone have fun, and happy puzzling!
Link to other Fortnightly Topics.